Migration Letters https://migrationletters.com/ml <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 <p>All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013-2022 Transnational Press London</p> Socio-economic factors in labour market regulation https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2375 <p><em>In the current economic literature, there is a lack of research on the labour markets of developing countries in Central Asia. This study offers both statistical and theoretical analyses of the labour markets of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. We aim to identify the main socio-economic factors that influence the labour markets in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. The article provides an overview of the current situation in the labour market and describes positive and negative trends there. This analysis reveals the factors to address challenges in the labour markets and the economy. The article is likely to be useful for understanding these markets in order to formulate public policies.</em></p> Ainura Maxyutova Saule Kaliyeva Rakhila Rakhmetova Marziya Meldakhanova Gulzhakhan Khajiyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 561 570 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2375 Labour Integration of the EAEU Member States https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2359 <p><em>While there is a great deal of literature on migration and labour integration in Europe, studies on Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) are scarce despite the sheer volume of migration in the region. This study aims to describe the issues of global labour integration and implications in the EAEU. The main research methods are the historical method and the method of analysis. The article provides a brief analysis of modern processes of labour integration around the world, analyses the experience of some associations in this area, and describes the processes of labour migration in the EAEU from multiple perspectives. The study will be useful for understanding trends in labour integration and migration in the EAEU and its member states.</em></p> Zhanna Kapsultanova Gulnar Lukhmanova Taizhan Sarzhanov Meruyert Toregozhina Nailya Shiganbayeva Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 571 579 10.33182/ml.v19i6.2359 Kazakhstan Model of Interethnic Relations: Cultural Aspect https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2374 <p><em>The purpose of this study is to critically examine the nature of interethnic interactions in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the lens of the cultural aspect at the institutional level, as well as to identify the model of interethnic relations in Kazakhstan. As research methods, the study involved diachronic and synchronistic methods corresponding to cultural studies, which allowed considering the current state of interethnic relations in the country by aspects and systemically, considering historical-geographical, socio-economic, cultural, and linguistic contexts. The study also employed a psychological approach, which allowed considering the development of interethnic relations from the standpoint of subjective cultural mechanisms. As a result, a descriptive model of interethnic relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan was formulated, and the study identified the crisis moments affecting the full-fledged development of coexisting ethno-religious microsociums, native people and immigrants, in the multilingual and multicultural system of the republic. </em></p> Gulzhan Zhalelova Raushan Imanzhusip Tengesh Kalenova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 581 592 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2374 Unemployment in the Area of Construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railroad https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2377 <p><em>It is important to underline the relevance and role of the Turkish railroad construction in the early twentieth century, one of the most ambitious transport projects of those times. It was a unique project which connected Asia and Siberia. From the beginning of the construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway (Turksib), controversy began with construction and the labour force. This study explores the characteristics of the construction of Turksib with a focus on labour migration and labour law. The article deals with the archival materials of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The results of this study will be useful as a basis for further research into the regions’ demographics and the characteristics of railroads and construction employment.</em></p> Lashyn Abdildinova Nazym Kassymova Kulimkoz Santayeva Albina Abdildanova Zhadyra Kalelova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 593 601 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2377 Fostering Human Dignity as an Effective Social Measure Against Human Trafficking in Ukraine https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2365 <p><em>Due to the 2022 invasion, there is a growing interest in Ukraine as human trafficking cases increase. Results of the study showed that the main victimising factor was not material difficulties as commonly believed. The transgenerational trauma identified by psychologists was caused by the Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932-1933. Also, one of the causes is the comparable consequences of other Soviet repressions against the Ukrainian people, including the destruction of the identity of Ukrainians across many generations. This study may be useful in the context of studying human trafficking, migration, refugees and the demographic consequences of the war in Ukraine.</em></p> Larysa Brych Taras Sozanskyy Svitlana Khyliuk Galyna Yaremko Nataliia Parasiuk Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 603 613 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2365 Regulation of Educational and Labour Migration of Kazakhstan Youth Abroad https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2356 <p><em>Educational and labour migration is rather common among young people in Kazakhstan. However, there are some critical issues that warrant regularisation of youth migration for education. The systematic expansion of educational contacts of the Republic of Kazakhstan with other countries and the advantages of foreign education are explored in this research. The findings of the study could be useful in developing and revising government strategies, particularly relevant to the Youth Development Strategy in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period until 2025-2030.</em></p> Dariya Iskakova Zeinep Abetova Aruzhan Jussibaliyeva Damira Iskakova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 615 627 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2356 The Influence of Acculturation on National Identity https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2352 <p><em>The term “identity” has many specific definitions in the philosophical, psychological, sociological and cultural sciences, but can be defined as a set of individual personal and behavioural characteristics, attributes, beliefs and desires that define an individual as a member of a certain group. After gaining independence in 1991, Kazakhstan, which has experienced at least seventy years of “colonial” policy with various linguistic political strategies as well as forced migrations, found itself in an interesting sociolinguistic situation, with a large number of Russian-speaking population consisting of both ethnic Russians and other national minorities, as well as ethnic Kazakhs, representatives of the titular nation. This article analyses the sociolinguistic phenomena, such as “shala-Kazakh/urban Kazakh” in independent Kazakhstan, and the Hebrew language of the Palestinians, the indigenous population of the territory now called Israel, as well as the influence of these phenomena on the national identity.</em></p> Aigerim Zhumadilova Dina Koptileuova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 629 639 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2352 The Influence of the Soviet Regime on the Religious Beliefs of Ethnic Minorities https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2350 <p><em>This article explores the development of religious relations in modern post-Soviet republics with reference to mobility and the imprint of the influence of the Soviet regime. Populations with different religious beliefs in Kazakhstan are reflective of the country’s geographical position and the migrations and deportations during the Soviet regime. This article aims to identify and reveal the processes of transformation of religious thinking and beliefs of ethnic minorities in the USSR, as well as to uncover the notion of transformation of ethnic identity and self-consciousness. The leading approaches to the study of this topic are the descriptive method, the method of historiographical analysis and synthesis, as well as the problem-chronological approach. In addition, the article presents an analysis of various normative acts, examines the development of the Soviet regime’s pressure on religious institutions and organisations of national minorities. </em></p> Gulzhan Khussainova Nursulu Dyussenova Zhomart Simitikov Amangul Zhalmaganbetova Botakoz Nuralina Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 641 648 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2350 Elimination of Homeless Children in the Kazakh SSR in 1946-1953 https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2347 <p><em>Based on the documentary sources of the State Archive of the Aktobe region, the difficulties that affected orphanages in the post-war period and the measures taken by local authorities to address these issues are the focus of this article. Migrating children around was part of the challenges. The number of orphanages in the Aktobe region in 1946-1948 decreased from 12 to 10. Reports on the supply of food, clothing, and household items are scarce, but still they have partially identifed the acute need in some regional orphanages. The government tried to address the children homelessness and neglect issues by employing teenagers in enterprises and placing them in educational institutions. The living conditions of foster children in orphanages gradually began to improve by 1951-1952. </em></p> Alima Mukhambetgaliyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 649 658 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2347 Demographic Change and Mobility in The East Kazakhstan Region in the 1920s and 1930s https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2349 <p><em>This paper explores the demographic indicators of the East Kazakhstan region, formed as a result of the political campaigns in 1920-1930 period, especially forced migration and the confiscation carried out within the framework of the collectivisation policy, as a result of which the severe famine that took place considerably affected the decline in the population of East Kazakhstan. The historical fate of the Kazakhs who were resettled outside the border and in neighbouring countries and died as a result of famine in those years are discussed. We have used comparative-historical data to explore the region’s demography and forced migration. </em></p> Tanakoz Jakipova Aigul Adilbaeva Kalamkas Bolatova Arafat Mamyrbekov Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 659 666 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2349 Rehabilitation of Deportees to Kazakhstan https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2342 <p><em>During the Soviet era, in the 20s and 50s of the XX century, repressions and forced migration were widespread. We have used methods of historical retrospective, analysis and synthesis. Documents of the Archives of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan were used in the study. It was found that during the Soviet era, mass deportations to Kazakhstan led to the deportation of Poles in 1936, Koreans in 1937-1938, Iranians in 1938-1939, Germans in 1941, Karachays in 1943, and Chechen-Ingush in 1944. In addition, there was a case of forcible dissolution of the National Autonomies of nations. As a result, thousands and millions of people of different nationalities were forcibly evicted. The fate of deported peoples changed after I.V. Stalin’s death in 1953. In 1956, XX Congress was held in the Soviet Union. It paved the way for the liberation from the “cult of personality” and the restoration of the rights of repressed and deported peoples, the process of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation process was carried out from 1954 to 1960, the rights of persecuted peoples were restored and the autonomies were reorganised.</em></p> Kanat Yensenov Bekmurat Naimanbayev Aytzhan Orazbakov Raushan Nurbekova Ayauly Bulgynbaeva Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 667 676 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2342 Self-Identification among Kazakh Diaspora in Germany https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2362 <p><em>Transnational migration spaces and a system of diasporas are created and developed in the context of globalisation. The self-identification of an ethnic group in destination is one of the facets of modern human mobility. The development of the Kazakh diasporas in Germany is a vivid example of self-identification. The study aims to examine the mechanism of establishment and development of the Kazakh diaspora in Germany. As part of the analysis of the Kazakh diaspora in Germany, a four-polar identification model was used. The study identifies the main causes and outcomes of the ethnic identification of the Kazakhs in Germany. </em></p> Shynar Tleugazina Gulmira Shapiyeva Nurlan Baigabylov Zeinep Abetova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 677 686 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2362 Relations Between the Republic of Kazakhstan and Kazakhs Abroad (1991-2000) https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2438 <p><em>To date, the number of Kazakhs around the world is about 15 million. About 5 million of them live in 45 countries around the world. The article is based on domestic and international scientific literature. The emphasis here is on Kazakh diaspora and its development trends. This includes an analysis of demographic factors and the distribution of the Kazakh diasporas. We have identified main characteristics of Kazakh migration and the Kazakh diaspora as well as their relations with other Kazakhs and the Republic of Kazakhstan. This article is likely to be useful for further research and a general understanding of migration processes in Central Asia.</em></p> Ganiy Karassayev Gabit Kenzhebayev Talgatbek Aminov Seiitkali Duisen Ainur Shukeyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 687 694 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2438 Echoes of Colour Discrimination in Refugee Protection Regime: The Experience of Africans Fleeing the Russia-Ukrainian War https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2776 <p><em>After 71 years of commitment to the principles of the Refugee Convention and an obligation to protection; the international system faces challenges as socio-political, economic and security concerns become alibis that betray fidelity to the treaty and are manifest in discrimination and expulsions of asylum-seekers, migrants and refugees. Our paper examines this collapse and highlights themes of covert colour politics and discrimination vis-a-vis the Russia-Ukrainian war. Our methodology combines interviews, narratives and critical analyses as we document the ugly experiences of Africans fleeing the war zone and the denials of protection they face based on their skin colour. Our discussion raises concerns that cannot be ignored as conflicts escalate globally. Rather than embracing the hardline hostility confronting migrants and refugees, we argue for a reappraisal of the movers and their status not as a migration problem to be solved but as victims of a faulty international system that deserve attention. </em></p> Sunday Israel Oyebamiji Olumide Oyewole OYEBADE Jeffrey H. Cohen David Okechukwu Abraham Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 695 – 707 695 – 707 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2776 Revisiting Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of a Scientific Inquiry of Migration in the Era of Digitalisation https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2135 <p><em>This paper discusses how new information technologies will change the inquiry of social processes, particularly regarding migration studies. Modern innovations in the sphere of collection and processing of information, like digitalisation, analysis of Big data, and the development of data science, might transform theoretical approaches to migration studies. Applying Babbie’s (2021) macro and micro theory of social process inquiry, the intention in the current article is to add a nano level, which will be increasingly utilised in the coming years, particularly in the sphere of inquiry of population migration using personal biological (fingerprints, eye features, and even DNA) characteristics. The paper underlines that modern information technologies will not only allow for a deeper understanding, but also for a broader capture of social processes. Moreover, these technologies will facilitate the use of mixed method research, i.e. incorporating quantitative and qualitative approaches. It is also important to understand the continued importance of ethical principles regarding the protection of personal information. </em></p> <p> </p> Bolat Tatibekov Leo-Paul Dana Farida Alzhanova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 709 715 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2135 Reshuffling Ethnic Composition of Cities by Migration in Syria https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2261 <p><em>It is argued that the Arab Spring increased the motivation for democracy and led to clashes between the regimes and the citizens. Nevertheless, this expectation turned into a Civil War in Syria in 2011, causing the destruction of cities and displacing nearly half of the population. After the civil war, which started in 2011, there have been major ethnic shifts in Syria. Some Sunni Arabs, Kurds, Turkomans, Nusayris and Christian people, minorities in their areas, are forced to leave their homes. So the ethnic composition of the country is changed. This article draws attention to a potential crisis in the Middle East due to large shifts in ethnic populations. The Arab Spring and civil war in Syria triggered a process of federalisation in Syria as ethnic composition of cities and governorates shifted by forced migrations. IDP mobility in Syria is viewed from the perspective of Assad’s “Useful Syria” doctrine and the ethnic structure that is tried to be created within the framework of the safe de-escalation zones created in the Astana process. </em></p> Zeynep Banu Dalaman Hüseyin Murat Lehimler Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 717 729 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2261 Transformation of Traditional Kazakh Society: Modernisation or Ethnodeformation https://migrationletters.com/ml/article/view/2358 <p><em>The object of the study is the history of the Kazakh traditional society in the XVII – early XX century. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the history of Kazakh-Russian relations needs a new methodological analysis. The article analyses the institutions of power established by the colonial government, the course and consequences of land transformation, the activities of political and social institutions of the Kazakh traditional society, the process of their transformation by the colonial government, systematises the characteristic features of the nomadic society of traditional society. The influence of the Russian Empire in Kazakh-Russian relations is considered as a reflection of the process of transformation of traditional society. In the course of this, the parallel implementation of two directions is revealed – modernisation and ethnodeformation. The authors suggest an interpretation of the concept of "ethnodeformation of traditional society" and its manifestations in Kazakh society. </em></p> Khazretali Tursun Gulzhan Idrisova Rasylkhan Dzhunsheev Bakhytzhan Dzhursunbaev Gaukhar Musabekova Copyright (c) 2022 Migration Letters 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 19 5 10.33182/ml.v19i5.2358