Out-migration in Uttarakhand Himalaya: its types, reasons, and consequences


  • Vishwambhar Prasad Sati Mizoram University, India




Depopulation, destinations, out-migration, unemployment, Uttarakhand Himalaya


This study examines the types, reasons, and consequences of out-migration in the Uttarakhand Himalaya. Data were collected from secondary sources, mainly from an interim report on the status of migration in revenue villages of Uttarakhand, published by the ‘Rural Development and Migration Commission, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand’ in 2018. The district-wise analysis was carried out on the types of migration, reasons for migration, age-wise migration, the destination of migrants, and migration’s consequences in terms of depopulation in rural areas. Further, a case study of a village was carried out. The study reveals that in three districts – Pauri, Tehri, and Almora, more than 10% population out-migrated after 2011. Similarly, an exodus migration took place from more than 10% of villages of the same districts. This study further shows that migration is mainly internal – from the mountainous districts to urban centers, within the districts or within the state. About 734 villages are depopulated, and in 367 villages, the population has decreased by more than 50%. Unemployment is the major problem in rural areas as more than 50% of out-migration occurred for employment. 


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How to Cite

Sati, V. P. (2021). Out-migration in Uttarakhand Himalaya: its types, reasons, and consequences. Migration Letters, 18(3), 281–295. https://doi.org/10.59670/ml.v18i3.957