Artificial Intelligence (AI) In ESL Vocabulary Learning: An Exploratory Study On Students And Teachers’ Perspectives


  • Khalaf Alharbi
  • Lubna Khalil


This study investigates the perceptions and implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the context of English as a Second Language (ESL) vocabulary learning. The study primarily focuses on the perspectives of both students and teachers, examining their beliefs, attitudes, and expectations regarding using AI in vocabulary acquisition. It also explores the benefits and challenges of incorporating AI in ESL vocabulary learning. 77 college students and 22 English language teachers at a local university in Pakistan participated in the study. The primary data collection method involves two Likert scale questionnaires (Student-Variant and Teacher-Variant) that serve as quantitative tools to gauge participant opinions. Exploratory analysis was used to validate the questionnaire consisting of eight factors related to AI integration in vocabulary learning: effectiveness and benefit of AI, comfort level with AI tools, advantages of AI over traditional methods, challenges, and difficulties, compared effectiveness of AI usage over traditional methods, trust in AI Recommendations, frequency of AI tool usage, recommendation to peers. A comparative analysis of students’ and teachers’ responses was displayed in the Venn diagram.

Additionally, an exploratory thematic analysis was carried out on qualitative data gathered by open-ended items in the questionnaire. The findings show that students generally have a positive stance towards AI's role in vocabulary learning. They value AI's personalized and immersive learning experiences, marking it more efficient than traditional methods. However, the study also highlights challenges, including technical issues and a perceived lack of human interaction in AI-assisted learning. Furthermore, teachers' perceptions vary based on age and experience. Younger teachers demonstrate a more favorable to neutral view of AI, appreciating its contribution to efficiency and innovative teaching methods. Conversely, older teachers express resistance, voicing concerns about overshadowing traditional teaching methods and advocating for AI's complementary role in education. The findings from this study may contribute to a deeper understanding of how AI is perceived in vocabulary learning for ESL/ EFL contexts and how it can potentially impact teaching and learning practices.


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How to Cite

Alharbi, K. ., & Khalil, L. . (2023). Artificial Intelligence (AI) In ESL Vocabulary Learning: An Exploratory Study On Students And Teachers’ Perspectives. Migration Letters, 20(S12), 1030–1045. Retrieved from