International youth mobility in Eastern and Western Europe – the case of the Erasmus+ programme


  • Zsuzsanna Dabasi-Halász University of Miskolc
  • Julianna Kiss University of Miskolc
  • Ioana Manafi, Bucharest University of Economic Studies
  • Daniela Elena Marinescu Bucharest University of Economic Studies
  • Katalin Lipták University of Miskolc
  • Monica Roman Bucharest University of Economic Studies
  • Javier Lorenzo-Rodriguez Universidad Carlos III de Madrid



A country's mobility pattern is largely influenced by its previous historical development and current socio-economic situation. Hungary and Romania, due partly to the legacy of their socialist past, share many of their social and economic characteristics, which differ from countries in Western Europe. Such differences are also present when looking at the issue of international youth mobility, which contrast not only by rate but also by type in post-socialist countries when compared to Western Europe. The main objective of the present paper is to analyse the differences and similarities between Eastern and Western European countries with regard to one mobility programme – Erasmus+. The article presents the differences looking at macro data and quantitative questionnaire data.

Author Biographies

Zsuzsanna Dabasi-Halász, University of Miskolc

Associate Professor

Julianna Kiss, University of Miskolc

PhD candidate

Ioana Manafi,, Bucharest University of Economic Studies

Associate Professor

Daniela Elena Marinescu, Bucharest University of Economic Studies

Associate Professor

Katalin Lipták, University of Miskolc

Assistant Professor

Monica Roman, Bucharest University of Economic Studies


Javier Lorenzo-Rodriguez, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Assistant Professor


Alarcón, R. (1992): Nortenización: Self-perpetuating migration from a Mexican town. In J. Bustamante, R. Hinojosa and C. Reynolds (eds.): U.S.–Mexico Relations: Labor Market Interdependence. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA, 302–318.

Anghel, R. G., Botezat, A., Coșciug, A., Manafi, I., and Roman, M. (2016). International Migration, Return Migration, and their Effects: A Comprehensive Review on the Romanian Case. IZA Discussion Paper No. 10445.

Bochove, van M. and Engbersen, G. (2015). Beyond Cosmopolitanism and Expat Bubbles: Challenging Dominant Representations of Knowledge Workers and Trailing Spouses. Population, Space and Place, 21(4), 295-309.

Cangià, F., and Zittoun, T. (2018). When "expatriation" is a matter of family. Opportunities, barriers and intimacies in international mobility, Migration Letters, 15(1), 1-16.

Díaz Catalán, C., Díaz Chorne, L., Fernández Araiz, V., Lorenzo Rodríguez, J., Navarrete Moreno, L., Pallar´ es Cardona, E., and Sanz Suárez-Lledó; V. (2017): Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility. Deliverable D.4.5 – Descriptive Analysis Report. [accessed 22 April 2018]

Erasmus+ Annual Report (2016). [accessed 22 April 2018]

Eurostat (2018): Database. and [accessed 22 April 2018]

Favell, A. (2008). The New Face of East-West Migration in Europe'. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34 (5), 701-716.

Fechter, A.M., and Walsh, K. (2010). Examining “Expatriate” Continuities: Postcolonial Approaches to Mobile Professionals. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(8), 1197-1210.

Fischer, L. P. (2016). Symbolic Traces of Communist Legacy in Post-socialist Hungary: Experiences of a Generation that Lived During the Socialist Era. Leiden: Brill.

Gilpin, R. (1987). The Political Economy of International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

González, C. R., Mesanza, R. B., and Mariel, P. (2011). The determinants of international student mobility flows: an empirical study on the Erasmus programme, Higher Education, 62(4), 413-430.

Hamberger, J. (2001). Rendszerváltás és az állam felbomlása (Regime Change and the Dissolution of the State), História, 23(9-10), 38-41.

Hárs, Á. (2015). Elvándorlás és bevándorlás Magyarországon a rendszerváltás után – nemzetközi összehasonlításban, In Fazekas K. (Ed): Munkaerőpiaci Tükör 2015, 39-53.

Hawe, P., Ghali, L. (2008). Use of social network analysis to map the social relationships of staff and teachers at school, Health Education Research, 23(1), 62–69.

Hooghe, M., Reeskens, T., Stolle, D., and Trappers, A. (2009). Ethnic Diversity and Generalized Trust in Europe. A Cross-National Multilevel Study. Comparative Migration Studies, 42(2), 198-223.

Jennissen, R. (2003). Economic determinants of net international migration in Western Europe. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, 19(2), 171-198.

Korpela, M. (2010). A Postcolonial Imagination? Westerners Searching for Authenticity in India. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(8), 1299-1315.

Krugman, P. (1991). Increasing Returns and Economic Geography. Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483-499.

Lee, J.J.H. (2016). World Migration Report 2015. Migrants and Cities: New Partnerships to Manage Mobility. IOM Switzerland

Manafi, I., Marinescu, D., Roman, M., and Hemming, K. (2017). Mobility in Europe: Recent trends from a cluster analysis, Amfiteatru Economic 46 (19), 711-726.

Malaj, V., and de Rubertis, S. (2017). Determinants of migration and the gravity model of migration – application on Western Balkan emigration, Migration Letters, 14(2), 204-220.

Massey, Douglas S. and García-España F. (1987): “The Social Process of International Migration,” Science, 237(4816), 733-738,

Mayda, A. M. (2010). International migration: A panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows. Journal of Population Economics, 23(4), 1249-1274.

Neubecker, N., Marcel F., and Carolin L. (2014). Migration in der Europäischen Union, DIW Wochenbericht, Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), Berlin, 81(30), 711-722.

North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

North, D.C. (1995). The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development. In J. Harriss, J. Hunter, and C. M. Lewis, (Eds.) The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development, New York/London: Routledge, 17-26.

Papatsiba, V. (2006). Making higher education more European through student mobility? Revisiting EU initiatives in the context of the Bologna Process, Comparative Education, 42(1), 93-111.

Roman, M. and Suciu, C. (2007). International Mobility of Romanian Students in Europe: From Statistical Evidence to Policy Measures. Romanian Journal of European Studies, 2(5-6), 167-178.

Sanchez Barrioluengo, M. and Flisi, S. (2017). Student Mobility in Tertiary Education: Institutional Factors and Regional Attractiveness. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Todd, G.J.N., Clark, B., Marston, M., Urassa, M., and Todd, J. (2017). Gender and youth migration for empowerment: migration trends from Tanzania, Migration Letters, 14(2), 300-317.

Van Mol, C. (2014). Intra-European Student Mobility in international Higher Education Circuits. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Williamson, O. E. (1998). Transaction Cost Economics: How It Works; Where It is Headed. De Economist, 146 (1), 23-58.

Williamson, O. E. (2000). The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595-613.




How to Cite

Dabasi-Halász, Z., Kiss, J., Manafi, I., Marinescu, D. E., Lipták, K., Roman, M., & Lorenzo-Rodriguez, J. (2018). International youth mobility in Eastern and Western Europe – the case of the Erasmus+ programme. Migration Letters, 16(1), 61–72.