The Difficulties of Learning English Articles Among Undergraduate Kurdish Learners of English in Kurdistan


  • Nahida Abdo Naser



The challenge of mastering the correct usage of English articles, specifically "the," "a," and "an," continues to persist among second language learners, particularly among students in the Middle East, such as Kurdish learners. These difficulties endure despite ongoing efforts by linguists and English instructors to help second language learners overcome article-related errors. This study aims to investigate the specific obstacles faced by Kurdish learners when acquiring English, with a particular emphasis on the proper utilization of articles "a," "an," and "the." Employing a qualitative research approach, the study utilized semi-structured interviews to gather insights from seven English language teachers in Kurdistan who work with Kurdish students.

The findings of this research indicate that Kurdish learners commonly struggle with article usage, primarily characterized by the frequent omission of the definite article "the" and the incorrect use of indefinite articles "a" or "an" in inappropriate contexts. Several factors contributing to these article-related errors were identified, including student negligence, interference from their native language, and to a limited extent, issues related to language internal consistency.

To address the challenges related to article usage among Kurdish English learners, educators should consider implementing pedagogical strategies. This could involve making English the primary medium of instruction, promoting immersive learning experiences, and adopting a variety of instructional methods, including teacher-led instruction and self-assessment by students for mastering grammar rules and principles. In summary, despite the increasing interest of Kurdish students in learning English, the acquisition of articles remains a significant obstacle. Instructors must develop effective strategies to improve article usage as the number of Kurdish learners in Kurdistan enrolling in English courses continues to grow.


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How to Cite

Naser, N. A. . (2023). The Difficulties of Learning English Articles Among Undergraduate Kurdish Learners of English in Kurdistan. Migration Letters, 20(S9), 1388–1400.