Factors Influencing Outbound Medical Tourism in The Developing Countries and Brain Drain in Azerbaijan


  • Mayis Gulaliyev
  • Vugar Gapagov
  • Leyla Hajiyeva
  • Hicran Muradova
  • Elnur Aliyev




In the paper, the development directions and determinants of outbound medical tourism in countries with small economies were studied. The authors evaluated the effects of outbound medical tourism in the case of Azerbaijan, especially its possible negative effects on the health care system. Given the limited statistical data for such an assessment, some assumptions have been made. Outbound tourism from Azerbaijan to Turkey, Georgia, and Iran was studied for the case study. Based on the obtained results, the authors conclude that the price of medical services and the quality of medical services are the main determinants when choosing a destination country for outbound medical tourism. The neighborhood of the countries also plays a role in choosing the destination country, as it reduces transportation costs. The obtained results prove that spending on outbound medical tourism reduces the income of the healthcare system in the country, as well as causes the emigration of highly qualified doctors from the country. Taking this into account, the authors suggest 1) covering more service areas in the healthcare system through insurance payments; 2) increasing the wages of highly qualified medical personnel; and 3) increasing the quality of medical services.


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2023-10-13 — Updated on 2023-10-13

How to Cite

Mayis Gulaliyev, Vugar Gapagov, Leyla Hajiyeva, Hicran Muradova, & Elnur Aliyev. (2023). Factors Influencing Outbound Medical Tourism in The Developing Countries and Brain Drain in Azerbaijan. Migration Letters, 20(7), 1035–1052. https://doi.org/10.59670/ml.v20i7.4692