Morphological characterization of fig species (Ficus carica L.) widespread in northwestern Syria
This research was carried out in Idlib governorate in northwestern Syria during the years 2020, 2021 and 2022. 50 genotypes of edible figs grown in the region were identifzazied and characterized, according to the formal profiling criteria approved by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). The results showed that there were significant differences between the genotypes in most of the studied characteristics of the leaves (color, length, width, number of lobes, length of the stand, and number of leaves on the branch), and the genotypes varied in the characteristics of the fruit, whether quantity (number of fruits / branch, length, width, neck length, nozzle width, weight, TSS) or quality (external color, hardness, shape, top shape, stand shape, peel cracks, peel lines, pulp color, and drop on the fruit eye). The shape of the fruit ranged between spherical, oval and pear, and its color ranged from yellow, green, red, yellowish green, reddish green, pink, violet and black. Models varied in the presence of cracks and stripes on the surface of the rind of the fruit from absent to few to medium to many. As for the color of the pulp, it ranged from yellow, pink and red. The Khadrawi variety is superior in the characteristics of the weight and size of the fruits over the rest of the studied models, which gives it great importance in the processes of breeding and genetic improvement. The correlation analysis showed a positive linear correlation between fruit weight and length, width, neck length and nozzle width, and a positive linear correlation between the proportion of dissolved solids and the number of leaf lobes. The results of the cluster analysis of the characteristics of the studied models also showed that the studied genotypes were grouped into two main clusters, each cluster comprising three subgroups. The highest degree of kinship was between the Azuki and Zaibli styles, and between Shami and red porphy. Finally, the results of the research indicate that there is a great diversity between the genotypes studied, making it a key pillar in subsequent breeding programs.
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