Environmental Factors Affecting Surface Water in Al-Mishkhab District


  • Dr. Hassan Abdullah Hassan
  • Dr. Safaa M. Almudhafar
  • Iman A. Al-Atabi
  • Dr. B. A. Almayahi




This study focuses on investigating the natural and human factors that contribute to the deterioration of surface water in the Al-Mishkhab district. The research reveals that natural factors such as climate, soil, and natural vegetation have a significant impact on the qualitative characteristics of water, leading to pollution. Climate elements, particularly temperature and evaporation, were found to play a role in changing and deteriorating water quality. The characteristics of the soil in the study area were also identified as contributing to the alteration of water quality. Additionally, natural vegetation, including riverbank plants and aquatic and semi-aquatic plants, were found to affect the qualitative characteristics of water, especially during the summer season. Human-related factors were identified as another significant influence on water quality. The study highlights the high population density in certain areas along watercourses, particularly in urban residential areas, which leads to the discharge of sewage water and solid household waste. Agricultural activities were also identified as a major factor, with the use of fertilizers and pesticides contributing to the degradation of surface water. The study area is characterized by extensive cultivation along the river and watercourses, further exacerbating the alteration of water quality.


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How to Cite

Dr. Hassan Abdullah Hassan, Dr. Safaa M. Almudhafar, Iman A. Al-Atabi, & Dr. B. A. Almayahi. (2023). Environmental Factors Affecting Surface Water in Al-Mishkhab District. Migration Letters, 20(7), 261–276. https://doi.org/10.59670/ml.v20i7.4303