Crimmigration, Deportability and the Social Exclusion of Noncitizen Immigrants


  • Shirley P. Leyro Borough of Manhattan Community College (CUNY)
  • Daniel L. Stageman John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY)



Crimmigration, deportation, economic exploitation, integration, social exclusion, labor exploitation


The spread of crimmigration policies, practices, and rhetoric represents an "economically rational" strategy and has significant implications for the lived experience of noncitizen immigrants. This study draws up in-depth interviews of immigrants with a range of legal statuses to describe the mechanics through which immigrants internalize and respond to the fear of deportation, upon which crimmigration strategies rely. The fear of deportation and its behavioral effects extend beyond undocumented or criminally convicted immigrants, encompassing lawful permanent residents and naturalized citizens alike. This fear causes immigrants to refuse to use public services, endure labor exploitation, and avoid public spaces, resulting in social exclusion and interrupted integration, which is detrimental to US society as a whole.


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Author Biographies

Shirley P. Leyro, Borough of Manhattan Community College (CUNY)

Shirley Leyro, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Borough of Manhattan Community College–CUNY.  A critical criminologist, Dr. Leyro’s research focuses on deportation effects – including the impact of the fear resulting from the vulnerability to deportation. Her research interests include immigration, social disorganization, and crimmigration. She is currently working on two funded research projects studying the impact of the vulnerability to deportation on college students. Dr. Leyro is co-editor of Outside Justice: Immigration and the Criminalizing Impact of Changing Policy and Practiceas well as a contributor to the same volume.  She is also a member of the Leadership Team for the Latina Researchers Network. 

Daniel L. Stageman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY)

Daniel L. Stageman, Ph.D. is the Director of Research Operations at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. His academic work examines political economy and profit in the detention of American immigrants, and the economic context surrounding Federal-local immigration enforcement partnerships.




How to Cite

Leyro, S. P., & Stageman, D. L. (2018). Crimmigration, Deportability and the Social Exclusion of Noncitizen Immigrants. Migration Letters, 15(2), 255–265.