Expression of Emotions in The Norwegian-American Immigrant Letters, 1838-1848




Emotions, Immigrant letters, Norwegian-American immigrants


Emotions are integral to human mobility. However, research on the expression of emotions in the letters of early immigrants is often neglected. This study on emotional expressions in early Norwegian-American immigrant letters, exchanged between 1838 and 1848, is a case in point. This article explores the dynamics in emotional expressions in the early letters of Norwegian-American immigrants. It shows how immigrants expressed their emotions in the letters addressed to their family members, neighbours and friends. This article also investigates the presence of emotional calls in the immigrant letters, which successfully pulled more people from Norway to America. Unlike many other early immigrant groups, Norwegian immigrants in America were satisfied with their migration experience and expressed more positive emotions in their home-going letters than negative ones. Considering the lack of research on the emotional aspects of migration, this paper recommends conducting more studies on this area.

Author Biographies

Md. Matiul Hoque Masud, University of Chittagong

Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh.

Nils Olav Østrem, University of Stavanger

Professor, Department of Elementary Education, Sport and Special Education,

Faculty of Educational Sciences and the Humanities, University of Stavanger, Norway.




How to Cite

Masud, M. M. H., & Østrem, N. O. . (2022). Expression of Emotions in The Norwegian-American Immigrant Letters, 1838-1848 . Migration Letters, 19(3), 303–313.